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Saturday 7 September 2013

object oriented programming- its features and benifites

Object oriented programming treats data as a critical element in the program development and these elements called objects. The objects- oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language which model organized around the objects. Oops allow decomposition of a problem with number of entities called objects.

In the objects oriented programming language, object refers to a specific type or “instance” of a class. Each object has a structure similar to other objects in the class, but each object can assign individual characteristics. Object can also call functions or methods. Basically, Objects are the run- time entities in the object oriented programming. It may represent a person, a place, class students, a bank account, a table of data or any items that the program is to be use.  

Objects oriented programming has one of the programming buzzword today. These appears to be a great deal of interest and excitement among the software engineers in using Oops.

Some Features of object oriented programming:

It is emphasis the data rather than procedure.
In the Oops, programs are divided into objects.
Data structure are designed such they characterize the objects.
Functions that operate on the data of an object are tied together.
Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions.
Objects can communicate with each other through the functions.

The programming areas for application of Oops are-
  1. Real time systems,
  2. Objects oriented data base,
  3. Simulation and modeling,
  4. Artificial Intelligence
  5. Expert system
  6. Natural networks and parallel programming
  7. Hypertext, hypermedia
  8. Decision Support and office automation system
  9. CIM (computer Integrated Manufacturing) system,
  10. CAM (computer Aided Manufacturing) / CAD (Computer Aided design) system,

The most popular application of OOP has been the area of user interface design such as Windows. Most Windowing systems have been developed using the Oops technology.

Benefits of objects oriented programming:
  • Through Inheritance features of objects oriented programming, we can create object for one program and it can easily be reused in the other programs.
  • We can build program from the standard working module that communicate with one another.
  • The principle of data hiding helps the programmer to build secure programs. And programmers can hide a particular part of code in the programme for security.
  • It is easy to work partition in a project-based on objects.
  • Large programs are very difficult to write, but in the object oriented programs programmer to go through an extensive planning phase, which makes better designing flow for programme.
  • Object oriented system can be easily upgraded from small to large systems and its maintenance charge is very less.
  • Object oriented system base software complexity can be easily managed.
  • Object oriented programming leads to saving of development time and it providing higher productivity.

Friday 6 September 2013

Data structure through C- easy class notes

Data Structure

Introduction to Data Structure:

A data structure is a collection of one or more variable, possibly of different types. It is a collection of data items grouped together under a single name for convenient handling. Basically, it is specialized way of storing and organizing data in a computer for using in the program. Data structure is also called records in some language, like pascal.

Data structure are generally based on the ability of a computer to fetch and store data at any place in its memory; by address and manipulated by the programmed at any time in the program me.

 Data structures = Organized data + operations.

Use of data structure:
Data structure basically used to manage large amounts of data efficiently.
Data structures help to recognize complicated data, particularly in very large programs because it permits a group of related variable to be treated as a unit instead of separate items.

Typical operations on a data structure are:

Type of Data Structure:
Linked lists

Array: An array is a collection of similar elements stored in adjacent memory location. It is called linear data structure. It is a collection of homogeneous (similar type) data elements. Its elements are stored in computer memory in a linear way.

Stacks:  A stack is an ordered collection of items into which all the insertions and deletion are performed at one end called the TOP of stack. The insertion operations are known as PUSH and deletion operation as POP. And stack processed in LIFO way, means (last in first out).  

Queues:  queues is defined as a list in which items may be deleted at one end called the front of the queue, and items may be inserted at the other end, called the rear of the queue. This process is called FIFO (first in first out).

Linked List:  Linked list is defined as a linear collection of data elements called nodes; where each node consists of two parts; first part is information and pointer to next node. The last node contains NULL pointer. 

Tree: A tree is a non linear collection of nodes. In the computer science the tree is represented upside to down i.e., the root on the top and the remaining nodes downward.

Structure:  structure is a collection of logically related fields. And fields may be same or different types.  

Graph: graph is a set of nodes or vertices and a set of arcs or edges where each arc is specified by  a pair of nodes.  


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